In this passage, Jesus is taken to Golgotha, which means "the place of a skull," and is crucified along with two robbers. The soldiers who crucified him divided his clothing among them and cast lots for it. They then sat and watched him die.
Above Jesus' head, the soldiers placed a sign that read "THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS." This was intended as a mockery of Jesus' claim to be the Messiah, or the chosen one of God, and as a warning to others who might follow him.
As Jesus hangs on the cross, the people who pass by blaspheme him, wagging their heads and taunting him. They challenge him to save himself and prove that he is the Son of God by coming down from the cross.
This passage shows the suffering that Jesus endured during his crucifixion and the mockery and rejection that he faced from those around him. It highlights the irony of the situation, as Jesus, who claimed to be the King of the Jews, is being executed by the very people he came to save.
At the same time, this passage also underscores Jesus' commitment to his mission and his willingness to endure suffering and humiliation in order to bring salvation to humanity. Jesus' refusal to drink the sour wine mixed with gall shows his determination to face his fate with clarity and without any kind of numbing agent.
Furthermore, the mocking and taunting of Jesus on the cross reveals the depth of humanity's sin and the need for redemption. The people who pass by show their ignorance and lack of understanding of Jesus' true identity and mission, and their words reflect the same temptation that Jesus faced in the desert, to prove his divinity through miraculous signs.
In summary, Matthew 27:33-40 describes the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the mocking and rejection that he faced from those around him. It highlights the irony of the situation and underscores Jesus' commitment to his mission and his willingness to endure suffering for the sake of humanity's salvation. The passage also reveals the depth of humanity's sin and the need for redemption.